Thomas McPherson Brown’s Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis – The Antibiotic (AB) Protocol

Antibiotic (AB) protocol has been successfully applied for decades in countries such as Netherlands, Europe and US to treat various forms of rheumatoid diseases including inflammatory arthritis such as RA, lupus, Fibromyalgia. Despite this fact, it appears that many physicians and patients are still unaware of its existence nor familiar with the numerous research, studies and clinical trials that have proven or demonstrated its efficacy in its treatment.

In an immunologic disorder such as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), that may incubate for years, the immune system is said to become over-reactive, as the white blood cells are activated to destroy the surrounding tissues causing inflammation. Typical treatments that are widely utilized today by the vast majority of rheumatologists include steroids, cortisone and other metabolic drugs only provide symptomatic reliefs and are often very toxic, yet do not address the underlying causative root to the chronic disease activity.

What might the Culprit be?

It has long been studied that an infectious agent is thought to initiate RA which is characterized by chronic and periodic symptoms. The concept of an infectious agent as a trigger of autoimmune disease is not new. Several microorganisms (mycoplasmas, bacteria and viruses) have been proposed as likely etiological agents for RA. The recent report that Lyme can demonstrate RA-like symptoms and can be treated with antibiotics, has attracted interested in the infectious theory.

AB ProtocolAs early as the 1950’s, Dr Thomas McPherson Brown proposed that microbial root cause should be the primary target for RA and he concluded that the latent and slow acting species of bacteria, that is the ubiquitous and unique mycoplasmas may be the viable culprit that cause persistent inflammation. In his practice, he seemed to have a treatment protocol, a plan that involves long term treatment with some form of anti-mycoplasma antibiotic group and found these protocols produced long lasting remissions.

For example, tetracyclines dosages varied from 10mg to 1000mg or from daily to weekly with oral and intravenous administration including several days of hospitalization. A significant study of 98 hospitalized RA patients treated over a 5 years period found that over 70 were substantially improved using the variable antibiotic treatment plan which was anything but standard infection plan of 1gm per day for 10 days.

What are Mycoplasmas?

Mycoplasma belong to the class of bacteria called Mollicutes. Unlike viruses and bacteria, they are the smallest free-living and self-duplicating microorganisms. They do not require living cells to replicate their DNA and growth and can colonize inside human cells.

Researchers have successfully isolated mycoplasma from synovial tissues of patients with RA. A British group found 2/3 of their RA patients to be infected by Mycoplasma Fermentens. These results are impressive since they did not include more prevalent Mycoplasma strains such as M.Salivarium, M.Ovale, M.Hominis and M.Pneumonia.

Mycoplasma1Another Finnish research reported a 100% incidence of isolation of mycoplasma from 27 rheumatoid synovia using a modified culture technique. None of the non-rheumatoid tissue yielded any mycoplasmas. The same technique also reported mycoplasma antibodies in 53% of patients with definite RA. Using similar technique, another researcher had cultured mycoplasma in 80-100% of their RA test population.

These provide additional support for mycoplasmas as an etiologic agent for RA.

The Science of Tetracycline and/or Minocycline Being Used in Antibiotic Protocol

With mycoplasmas being identified as the causative factor in RA, it had been demonstrated that tetracycline and minocycline type drugs provide some sorts of improvement in the disease activity, given that they inhibit leukocyte, macrophage and synovial collagenase.

Gradually, treatment of RA has been shifted from using tetracycline to minocycline because the latter is more potent and it penetrates the tissues better. It also benefits through its immunomodulating and immunosuppressive properties, beside from showing that it is also known to increase intracellular calcium concentrations which inhibit T-cells.

These antibiotics are so effective in suppressing mycoplasmas in RA that a reaction called the Herxheimer effect (healing crisis) develops on initial use.

The Herxheimer Reaction (Healing Crisis)

The presence of the Herxheimer reaction or healing crisis is a good reason to support the existence of the infection in the first place. The healing crisis is usually accompanied by worsening of the existing symptoms which is due to the release of excessive mycoplasmas antigens or internal toxin contents into the sensitized human host tissues following the antibiotic therapy.

According to Dr Brown, the mycoplasmas attach a barrier around itself that keeps out the immune system but both tetracycline and minocycline work by suppressing this barrier which forms the mycoplasmas means of defense.

Dr Mercola also found that those patients following his protocol and prescribed nutritional guidelines rarely experience prolonged healing crisis, which include supplementation of Bs, C, D alongside with limiting sugar among other strict dietary guidelines.

Dosage and Administration of Drugs

Basically, there are 3-prong prescriptions:

  1. Antibiotics: such as tetracycline or minocycline, in low pulsed doses aimed at inhibiting the microbial cause and preventing the disease, also acting as antioxidants, immunosuppressants and protein synthesis inhibitors. Usually, 100 mg of minocycline administered twice a day. If tolerated, it is ideal to take it on an empty stomach, first pill at mid-morning (2 hours after breakfast) with a glass of water and the second dose at bedtime.
  2. Immunosuppressants: such as low dose prednisone, which blocks the immune-complex formation and the activation of Complement which promotes tissue destructive inflammation. Usually, 7 to 5mg of prednisone may be administered simultaneously with the antibiotic. Preferably, no more than 10mg should be administered for flares. Dosage must be kept low to prevent interfering with the immune system but high enough to reduce the hypersensitivity or allergic inflammatory reaction of the disease activity.
  3. Anti-inflammatory antixosidants: such as dietary supplements and NSAIDs, which eliminate and prevent tissue destructive inflammation. The concomitant use of NSAIDs varies.

Minocin PillThe therapeutic plan may be modified and adjusted by the physician based on the following guidelines:

1. Titration of the antibiotic dosage
2. Treatment complex to be given in interrupted fashion
3. Aim to phase out steroids in time

Side Effects

Early encountered problems typically comprise headaches and dizziness, which usually abate with time. Quite rarely minocycline can cause drug-induced hepatitis or pneumonitis. However, the more apparent side effect of long term administration of the antibiotics is the minocycline-induced hyperpigmentation. The skin that are usually exposed to sun may develop patchy or general darkening. The gum, teeth and conjunctiva of eyes can also darken.

Clinical Studies and Findings

An independent group of biostatisticians reviewed the risks benefits in the treatment of all patients admitted to the National Hospital by Dr Brown over the five years from 1978 to 1983 and these evaluations demonstrated:

  • 84% of patients reported an improvement of 50% or more in their joints and morning stiffness
  • 75% of patients reported symptomatic improvement with respect to weakness, fatigue, depression and feeling of well being.
  • An unexpectedly positive and statistically significant correlation between duration of treatment and improvement observed.
  • Patients on AB protocol were able to reduce or discontinue corticosteroid therapy.
  • 70% of patients remained on AB therapy 5 years after starting treatment versus only 10-20% of patients treated with gold who remained on that drug for 5 years.
  • No serious toxicity and side effects developed.

Quoting the authors, the risks and benefits from the long term AB treatment are substantially more favourable than historical experience reported for using conventional slow acting drugs such as Gold, Plaquenil, etc.
MycoplasmaIn 4 decades of experience with antibiotics, Dr Brown noted significant benefits from AB protocol required on an average of 1 to 2 years. It was common for patients to experience worsening of condition during the first few months prior to improvement. Some others experienced improvement as soon as 6 months into the therapy. In other word, the effectiveness of the therapy is also highly dependent on the extensiveness of the disease and duration of the therapy. There was no surprise to note severe cases where it took up to 30 months for the patients to gain sustained improvements.

The primary takeaway for AB protocol is that once remission is established, it is generally permanent and it takes persistence and cooperation with the practitioner to determine the right combination of antibiotic dosage and method of administration which includes management of sensitization to the antigens. Factors such as age, gender, and genetic susceptibility all contribute to either help, hinder or predispose the therapeutic success and for optimal results, the treatment plan must incorporate variable factors such as diet, health, exposure, physical and mental stress and for such plan to be individually adjusted. Even though symptoms may be similar for two persons on the surface, the underlying mechanisms may be totally different.


When remission becomes established, the antibiotics may be gradually phased out. When flare ups occur, short courses of antibiotics should be given until no longer needed.

The following criteria help to establish remission:

  • A decrease in duration of morning stiffness to no more than 15 minutes
  • No pain at rest
  • Little or no pain or tenderness on motion
  • Absence of joint swelling
  • A normal energy level
  • A decrease in ESR to no more than 30
  • A normalization of patient’s CBC
  • ANA and RF titers returning to normal

Final Notes

Dr Brown and his associates had accumulated significant evidence that mycoplasmas were at root of RA and that the above group of antibiotics can kill or radically suppress mycoplasmas and their growth. When administered in a low, controlled dose over a long period over months or years, depending on severity of condition, they could help RA conditions to improve and gradually bring the infections to within manageable bounds.

Since Dr. Brown’s death, many physicians have been prescribing the AB protocols for their arthritis patients and gained additional insights into improving the success rate of the treatment. For instances, some physicians determined that limiting sugar is critical in the treatment program because sugar has multiple significant negative influences on a person’s biochemistry through elevation of insulin levels and impairment of intestinal microflora.

LabOthers found that patients should not consume certain mineral supplements when taking their antibiotics. For example, iron. Over 85% of the dose will bind to iron and pass through the colon unabsorbed. Another examples are magnesium and calcium. Their interaction with the antibiotic also prevent them from working effectively.

In many cases where one antibiotic is not effective, another (or a combination of antibiotics) may work equally well for the same patient.

I have not personally tried AB protocol before due to a lack of access to physicians who prescribe it. The protocol needs to be maintained long term, usually for years; and financially, I do not deem it viable for me to fly out of town, say on a monthly basis, for years to the nearest physician overseas for appointments and follow-ups.

This is an awareness post, and I cover this, nonetheless, with the belief that this information may be useful and valuable to people in search for an answer to probably some of their RA questions. If you wish to learn more of Dr Brown’s AB protocol in greater details, there are abundant of information, studies and research that can be found at its official site – the Road Back Foundation’s site. The RBF website contains an ever growing number of databases of testimonials of patients who have reclaimed their lives due to the AB protocol as well as information and support on this protocol, forums and other important but often overlooked treatment options.

I understood that there are successes and failures for some patients who have tried out AB protocol before. If you are currently on this protocol or have done it before, I’d like to invite you to share your experiences and advices/comments on them.



10 Comments on Thomas McPherson Brown’s Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis – The Antibiotic (AB) Protocol

  1. Madsie
    August 1, 2013 at 12:41 pm (11 years ago)

    I am happy to see you do an article on the antibiotic protocol.
    It is the only thing that worked for me (for a while).
    I was diagnosed in Aug/Sep 2004 just after the birth of my first child in the USA. Elevated labs – with RA factor over 350. I was offered Minocin by my doctor at Kaiser Permanente . Initially I was also on steroids and painkillers. I started the Minocycline MWF 100mg . Within 2-3 months symptoms started reducing. I slowly weaned off the steroids and painkillers and by Jan 2005 was in complete remission.
    In Jan 2006 I decided to try homeopathy – the first thing the homeopath made me do is get off the Minocycline and start his medicine. Within 3-4 weeks the symptoms started creeping back . But I was determined to stick with the homeopathy ( yeah my mistake – why mess with something which was working?). Pain started increasing – labs started going higher. By end of 2nd month I lost range of motion in my left wrist – and that is when I realized that homeopathy was NOT working for me – and I needed to get back on the stuff which WAS working for me . So went back on the Minocin and went back into remission.

    July 2007 I conceived my second child – went off the minocin as it is not safe in pregnancy (causes discoloration of bones and teeth of the baby). Had a lovely pain free pregnancy . My baby was born in April 2008 and by May 2008 the pain stiffness had returned with a vengeance. Went back on the minocin – but did not work that well this time around. tried some other natural stuff – went round the block a few times – and last month started Antibiotic Protocol again with IV Clindamycin to jumpstart my progress. Let us see if it works now……

    This is my story

    • diana
      August 2, 2013 at 10:43 am (11 years ago)

      It really does seem that antibiotic protocol is the ‘secret recipe’ that works for you. Maybe, the mycoplasma is immune to Minocycline/Minocin; so let’s hope Clindamycin works for you. For this protocol, you need to have it long term. The typical remission lasts 3-5 years, I’ve heard. Thanks for sharing your story with the antibiotic protocol & really hope it works for you again after re-trials. Good luck.

  2. Simi
    February 4, 2014 at 8:50 am (10 years ago)

    Hello Diana

    I love your blog. Lots of good information. I know many people (friends, colleagues, doctors) with RA on Antibiotic Protocol. They are well and leading a normal life. It’s not just RA, I’ve seen people with Scereloderma, Ankylosing spondilytis etc on AB Protocol and all has seen improvements of varying degrees. Diet is essential though.

    I’m not a type of person who leaves comments or be active on forum/blogs but I’m typing this really in hope to help someone somewhere who might be in pain. Who knows they might benefit from it! Please give it a try at least.


    • dianaadmin
      April 24, 2014 at 11:11 pm (10 years ago)

      Thank you Simi.

  3. Thomas M Gulden
    June 22, 2015 at 10:24 am (9 years ago)

    Hello Diana, I really your web site, very informative.
    Thomas is 63 years old. In May of 2014 is when the symptoms of RA hit me.
    Update on my journey with RA. I have seronegative RA. Back in May 2014, these are all of the places I had pain; shoulders, back of my neck, feet-toes, elbows, fingers and knuckles-both hands, right knee, right wrist. Fingers swollen both hands. I was afraid to shake someone’s hand. Swelling of ankles some days. I took two aspirin with my daily nap. Woke up at about 2:00 am, stiff and sore all over, had to take two aspirin to get thru the night. Did not sleep well at all most nights. Other symptoms; extreme fatigue, weakness all over, especially in the hands, I had to use two hands to pick up a gallon of milk to move it, sleeping more than normal. Had to use the rubber helper to open bottles and could not cut the grass for five months. I started medical treatment in October of 2014, these are the results; no pain anywhere (all the pain is gone), after two months of treatment, no aspirin or any pain meds. All of the swelling of the joints, gone (after the first week of treatment). I was really surprised when that happened. My strength and endurance have gradually improved and are back to normal (for a 63 year old man) and I am at 100% of what I was before any of the RA symptoms hit me. I did change my diet totally and my Dr. believes that did help a lot. Also my need for sleep is back to normal. Most nights one bathroom visit and that is it. I feel great now and can almost forget how bad I felt last May.
    I had new blood work done 2/23/15. CRP = 0.30 ESR/WSR = 1.0 All of my blood work is good and no indicators of inflammation.
    Old blood work 8/8/14 CRP = 3.9 WSR = 25.0 and other inflammation markers.
    So, I asked my Doctor. Am I in remission? She said yes, I am very happy for you.
    Thank you for the opportunity to share my story.
    I am taking “Minocycline” 100 mg. I take two capsules MWF or six caps per week. I started treatment October 2014. I will start phasing out the meds in september. I have had zero side effects with this treatment.

    • diana
      July 6, 2015 at 1:28 pm (9 years ago)

      Hello Thomas, thank you for stepping up & share your story with our readers. Very much appreciated. I strongly encourage the readers to give Dr Brown’s antibiotic protocol a due consideration. Have I lived within proximity to a doctor who prescribes minocycline, I would definitely give it a shot! I sincerely feel very happy that you are in remission and well recovered. Diana xoxo

  4. Debra
    October 28, 2017 at 10:01 pm (6 years ago)

    Was glad to see this posted. I have had moderate to severe RA now for 38 years. The first 19 years I tried all the meds they offered, lots of bad side effects such as bone marrow suppression twice, elevated liver enzymes with methotrexate, and increasing hand deformaties. Then in 1998 (2 years after FDA trials) I tried Minocycline. What a miracle. I took two caps MWF for 17 years. Fabulous, a wonderful treatment with no side effects. Then in 2014 I got very sick. Fluid in heart and lungs, chest pain. They “think” I may have developed Drug Induced Lupus from the mino, which caused pericarditis. It’s 3 yrs later and been off mino for 2 1/2. Still sick with it, no one knows why, new meds don’t work well, and I went from no RA symptoms and a totally active life to invalid. I am not even certain I have pericarditis-no one is sure and I don’t show the usual test results. I’ve tried everything. I am tempted to try clindamycin, just to see what happens. But my heart is not right and am afraid to try anything to be honest. No one is even sure the mino caused this-it could be something else. or even, 17 years of antibiotics causing a systemic yeast problem, who knows. I am experimenting on myself, and hoping to get well. its been a nightmare, but would highly recommend minocycline for everyone with RA. Truly a miracle. I never got off it for 17 years though-if I missed a day or two of pills, my RA would start back up. Good luck to all, and I hope you can stay on it forever. Debra

  5. LauraC68
    May 8, 2018 at 10:19 am (6 years ago)

    As a child, I was a patient of Dr. Brown, although, more on a preventative diagnostic basis. My father, the primary patient, was told at age 24, that he’d never walk again by every doctor except Dr. Brown. My father had severe RA, his knee joints where 1.5x the size of a softball and the pain was excruciating. His father spent most of his life on crutches, from age 17 until his death, doubled over at a 90 degree angle because of RA, so, this runs in our family. Dr. Brown, literally, cured my father. After little more than a year on Tetracycline therapy, my father walked and carried his golf bag every weekend for the rest of his life, until he died at 79. NEVER did he ever have any mobility problems after Dr. Brown’s therapy. Interestingly, shortly before his death, Dr. Brown told me that he’d detected what he believed was a virus in my central nervous system. Sadly, he took ill shortly thereafter and I never found anyone who could follow up on what he said. 10 year later, I was diagnosed with autoimmune disorder – Hashimotos, and, later, Sjogrens, plus Reynauds. Today, as I write this, I’ve been feeling pain in my joints and my knuckles are slightly swollen. I’m online now, trying to find someone who could provide the protocol that I KNOW will work if it turns out I’m the next generation of RA in my family. Hopefully, I can find one in the DC metro area, if not, I’ll be traveling. Wish me luck!! 🙂

  6. Laura Coughanour
    June 12, 2018 at 2:59 am (6 years ago)

    My father was a patient of Dr. Brown. He was told he’d never walk again, his RA was so bad. My grandfather (Dad’s father) was bent over at a 90 degree angle and walked on crutches that way from the time he was 17 until his death at age 83, due to RA. Dr. Brown’s treatment did the trick. One year later, my dad was playing golf and walking (while carrying his golf bag on his shoulder) every weekend! He was never bothered by RA again. Now, several years later, I’m feeling what I highly suspect to be RA rearing it’s ugly head in my bloodline. Unfortunately, it’s incredibly difficult to find someone who will prescribe that protocol. I envy my dad that he was fortunate to have been in the hands of “the master”. I’m still trying to find someone who is willing to give that protocol a try.L

  7. Thomas Michael Gulden
    December 4, 2018 at 12:18 pm (5 years ago)

    Hello Diana,
    I just wanted to give you an update on my AP experience. I continue my diet and have been RA pain free since December 2014 (stopped taking any pain pills then) and RA in remission since March 2015. Started taking Minocycline October 2014, after 2 months I was pain free. After 6 months all my blood work was good. Continued for another 6 months just to be sure we got all of the bugs, then I stopped taking Minocycline. It took about one year to get my strength and endurance back to 100%, for a 66 year old man now. So, I took Minocycline for one year and haven’t taken any meds of any kind since October 2015.
    Some people ask: Why isn’t AP (antibiotic protocol) FDA approved or used by mainstream Rheumatologists? This might have something to do with it. ​FYI “Minocycline” 100 mg cost me $10.00 per month. W/o insurance cost is $40.00. I paid $120.00 for one year of medical treatment & I’m done.
    I have my own AP website that I try to pass on my experience and information.
    I also have a Facebook RA group with a lot of AP info and video’s that explain the “Infection Connection” to RA. If anyone is interested, please join.
    All the best,


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